Process Development – Flow Chemistry
Amar Chemistry provides process development services with a special focus on continuous flow processes and reactions requiring high pressure conditions. We can translate multi-step synthetic routes from the laboratory scale to production scale using flow chemistry, batch chemistry, and high-pressure reactions or any combination of these technologies.
Our flow chemistry experts can help you design chemical processes in continuous flow rather than batch. Performing reactions in continuous flow offers many advantages, including:
- Vastly improved heat and mass transfer
- Improved selectivity
- Improved mixing
- Pressure reactions; use solvents above their normal boiling points due to reactor design
- Improved process control
- Improved safety due to the very small volume of material present at any one time
- Multistep reactions performed in a continuous sequence
- Simplified scale-up by adding parallel reactors, which offers improved selectivity and control compared to batch scale-up
Examples of Reactions Performed in Flow:
- Grignard reactions
- Suzuki-Miyaura couplings
- Buchwald-Hartwig couplings
- Negishi couplings
- Amide formations
- Nucleophilic substitutions
- Trifluoromethylation reactions
- Lithiation/borylation reactions
- Alkylation reactions
- Nitration reactions
Electrochemistry and Photochemistry in Flow:
We have extensive expertise in carrying out electrochemical and photochemical reactions in continuous flow.
Electrochemical reactions use electricity rather than chemical reagents to affect chemical transformations. Benefits of using electrochemistry are a large reduction in the waste produced in the process, reduced use of hazardous reagents, easier purification of products, and improved selectivity. Furthermore, electrochemistry can in some cases affect chemical transformations that are not possible in any other way. Continuous flow chemistry is especially suited for performing electrochemical reactions, due to the increased mass transfer around the electrodes, and the possibility to use electrode configurations that can greatly improve reaction speed.
Photochemical reactions can accomplish transformations that would be very difficult using chemical reagents. As in electrochemistry, the amount of waste produced in photochemical reactions is very low. Despite the many benefits, however, photochemistry poses many challenges when used in larger scale reactions. The main problem with large-scale photochemistry is the limited penetration of light into the reaction mixture – a problem that is exacerbated in more concentrated solutions. The low light penetration makes it difficult to drive reactions to completion and attempts to do so often result in over-irradiation of the solution close to the light source, which leads to the formation of side products and photopolymers. Flow chemistry can solve these problems by performing the reaction in a thin reaction channel, enabling full light penetration, which leads to less side products, improved yields and higher productivity.
Examples of the successful use of photochemistry in flow are:
- Production of vitamin D
- Production of artemisinin (a first-line antimalarial treatment)
- Production of ε-caprolactam
Amar Chemistry Pvt. Ltd. provides its process development services in collaboration with NJ Bio.
Our process development services can be provided as Blended FTE Model with our partners at NJ Bio in the USA. In a typical set-up for process development for the scale-up from mg- to kg-quantities, screening of the reactions conditions and process parameters would be performed in India while the key steps of the route and the scale-up reaction would be performed in the USA.